عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In order to investigate the effects of deficit irrigation during phenological stages of fruit growth and development on almond (cv. “Mamaei”) production, an experiment was carried out in split plot and complete randomized block design with three replicates in 2000-2003.The main plots were three different stages of fruit growth consisting of: stage I (fruit growth), stage II (kernel growth) and stage III (pre-harvest period). The subplots were different irrigation regimes including T1=100% ETC (Full irrigation), T2= 80% ETC (deficit irrigation), T3=40 % ETC (deficit irrigation), and T4=0 % ETC (without irrigation). Parameters such as fruit size (length, width, and diameter), fresh and dry fruit weight, fresh and dry kernel weight, fruit drop, kernel percentage and yield were measured. The results showed that deficit irritations and water stress during stage-I decreased fruit size (length, width and diameter of fruit), fresh and dry weight of fruit and increased fruit drop percentage; but it did not have significant effect on mineral elements in leaf and fruit. The deficit irrigation and water stress during stage-II decreased fresh fruit weight, fresh and dry kernel weight, N in leaf and B in fruit. However, there was no significant effect on the measured parameters during stage-III. According to the results, deficit irrigation during all phenological stages of fruit growth significantly decreased yield, kernel dry weight and kernel percentage. The results showed that the effects of phenological fruit stages on N, K, Ca and B in leaf and on N, K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B in the fruits were significant, but the effects of irrigation regimes were not significant on mineral elements in leaf and fruits.